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The article discusses the methodological problems of the interaction of cultures and their influence on understanding modern national culture formation. Moreover, this approach does not deny cultures' uniqueness and originality; it helps to understand their analysis and development philosophy. The concrete experience of Azerbaijan and some other countries is an example that leads to the comprehension of some generalizations in the formation of modern cultures.
In the context of globalization, everything related to the interaction of cultures, in our opinion, has become one of the most pressing problems. Its relevance does not negate the fact that after the famous work of S. Huntington, the clash of cultures and civilizations has also become the focus of debate and discussion among scientists. There are many clashes and wars in the world, the end and edge of which are not visible. However, there is a desire to cooperate, develop interaction, and strive for integration. One such project is the New Silk Road. But much in its implementation, in our opinion, depends on how culture will be understood. If previously believed that interests lead to wars, now everything is not unambiguous with a culture that, as a soft or even "sharp" force, also leads to misunderstanding, exacerbating conflicts. In our opinion, the point is not in culture, but in its interpretation and peculiar use in cultural practice, education, and upbringing.
Much today in the world depends on the international order, which is based on dominance. Moreover, dominance includes culture. It has become clear to many that such an order is exhausting itself. In essence, the Soviet order was built on the same principles. The project "One belt, one way" is an alternative or may become an alternative to it. But it must be practical and at the same time open and inclusive project. Of course, much depends on China in implementing this project, but its implementation will depend on the countries involved in it. Openness and dialogue depend on many factors. This project should not end with an empire such as the USA or the USSR; it should be capable of reform, etc. But for it to become such, a new concept of the interaction of cultures must be proposed, if you want, then the philosophy of the cultural interaction of the countries of "One Belt, One Way". It is based on the fact that cultural foundations along this path are not offered by one country; it is created based on interaction principles (philosophy). First, historical and cultural epistemology cannot be limited to recognizing the dignity of the history of culture, and only one state's history. Secondly, history and culture are archives and the past and modern communication and even a shared future. Third, an understanding of history and culture recreates a sense of actual reality. Fourth, cultural studies' object and subject as an unfinished past involves the addition of documents and can potentially create a new understanding. Fifth, a constant reconstruction of the philosophy of interaction between different cultures on the Silk Road is needed. Sixth, the documents of the New Silk Road should be jointly analyzed. Seventh, we must proceed from the fact that the development and understanding of cultures are associated with their dialogue and interaction.
Key words: cultural interaction, national culture, cultural diversity, national and plural identity