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Journal NotaBene Issue 51 (2021) Editor: Gergana Popova

Topic of the issue: Philosophical and religious paths in the post-metaphysical age

Once Again, On the Human Essence

Postmodern philosophy tends towards the gradual annihilation of the category of “human nature”, „human essence” and its basic modes: reason, morality, freedom; human nature appears as one of the totalizations subjected to criticism. The paper briefly presents three view points on the status of the concept of “human essence” in the Enlightenment sense of the notion: it serves as a cognitive and value foundation, a reference point for analysis and social critique of the trends and phenomena in modern and postmodern society. Phenomena such as alienation, in all its various forms; consumerism; the breakdown of human ties in reality and their “reanimation” in the virtual sphere; magical thinking, fear, and aggression as dangerous “waste products” of these trends.
Keywords: human essence, reason, morality, freedom, alienation

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A young philosophical genius - the image of Christ in the novel of Nikolay Raynov “Between the desert and life”

The proposed article is devoted to the philosophical aspects of the artistic image of Christ built by Nikolay Raynov in his 1919 novel "Between the Desert and Life". The text has several parts, the first two of which analyze the issues related to the public response, which receive both the religious and philosophical beliefs of the writer and his
artistic talent. Understandably, the emphasis is on illuminating Raynov's ideological worldview, on his public image of a mystic, esoteric, and Nietzschean. Comments are presented both by theologians and religious thinkers in Bulgaria and by secular intellectuals from the interwar period. Attention is focused on three philosophical studies of Nikolay Raynov, published in a collection from 1925 entitled "Today and Tomorrow". Their general theosophical attitude is discussed.
The following parts of the text are devoted to the novel "Between the Desert and Life", respectively as: a novel about Christ, a novel against Christ, an apocryphal novel, a historical novel – these definitions are the result of the summaries of the numerous and varied reviews from the Bulgarian intellectual public about it. The last part is devoted to the actual philosophical aspects of the image of Christ, to the comparison of the writer's views with Gnosticism. The conclusion is that despite its non-canonical nature, the image of Jesus created by Nikolay Raynov is an image of a sublime and full of humanity sufferer, and the novel is by no means a hoax of Christianity.

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The Role of Ubuntu Human Values in Enhancing Key Political Institutions for Development in Nigeria

This paper examines the problem of underdevelopment in Nigeria against the backdrop of the huge natural and human resources that the country is endowed with. Basic social amenities like good roads, hospitals, schools etc. are still social goods prayed for by Nigerians. The question is, what are the factors affecting development in Nigeria? This study is an attempt to respond to the above important and disturbing question. It was discovered that one cardinal factor affecting development in Nigeria is the nature of their political institutions, such as the Executive, Judiciary and Legislature. Political institutions that ought to be independent in their operations are now tools used by the political class for their selfish interests. As a way out of this situation, we propose a rethinking of politics and political institutions in Nigeria in the light of Ubuntu ethics and education. In view of this, this study employs the method of philosophical analysis in achieving its objectives.
Keywords: ubuntu, institution, politics, development and values

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New philosophical order in South Caucasus: from “culture of war” to “culture of peace”

In place of the old unresolved conflicts, new risks and danger of reviving the so-called “frozen conflicts” (Nagorno-Karabakh) have arisen in South Caucasus, replacing the old unresolved ones. The region faces the need for a radical revision of philosophy, ideology and logic of war. In the article, the “culture of war” is viewed as a new philosophical category based on a whole complex of social, political, economic, moral and legal factors. The author discusses the need of a new philosophical order and change of paradigm: from “culture of war” to “culture of peace”. The text examines the so-called “humanitarian security” and the implementation of “people to people” contact as a means of resolving conflict at local level. In her analysis, the author draws on Galtung’s and Burton’s ideas of peace and the role of social conflicts. In conclusion, recommendations are made to ensure peaceful coexistence, territorial sovereignty and to protect the civilian population.
Keywords: South Caucasus, conflict, “culture of war”, dialogue, new philosophical order.

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This article deals with the solidarity conception in the eastern and the western historiography. This article is devoted to the concept of solidarity in the eastern tradition. First the author sets out the history of origin of concept in European historiography. Тhe author states the views of famous French sociological scientist Durkheim - one of the creators of Sociology as an independent science, the founder of professional sociology, whose main central sociological idea of the teaching is the one of the social solidarity. Based on researches of Muslim and European scientists then the author proves the thought that the true founder of this conception was Ibn Haldun Arabian Muslim philosopher, historian of 14th century. Article ends with some reflections about Islamic Solidarity in the modern world.
Keywords: Emil Durkheim, mechanical solidarity, organic solidarity, Ibn Khaldun, “desert” societies, the theory of asabiyya.

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Identity in Web 2.0 Era: Notes on the Concept of Lifestyle

The text considers the concept of lifestyle as a technique for constructing identity, which reflects both the patterns of behavior and ways of telling the Self, as well as the power mechanisms in contemporary society. The article briefly presents the definitions of lifestyle, and then focuses on its specific characteristics in the digital age.In conclusion, the text argues that if in early studies of lifestyle the concept refers to the visible characteristics of a particular group or class affiliation, today the lifestyle is an individual project of the Self, which must make it visible, thus inscribing it in the norms of " the society of transparency ". However, the requirement for transparency creates a compulsion of conformity. Working on the project for the Self resembles arranging pieces of a puzzle, which should lead to a good" looking ", ideal result. The constant imperative for something new is combined with the requirement of the digital age for continuous improvement, improvement not only of skills in the workplace and ways to spend free time, but also of one's own body. However, the constant strengthening of the mental and physical self gives birth to a meta-model of lifestyle, which is in constant competition with itself. The endless creative act in which the Self is the creator of the body, of life, of its social contacts, values, beliefs, is atrophied by the requirement that identity be assembled from already known pieces - because only then will it be recognized and approved in transparency.
Keywords: lifestyle, digital age, identity, Web 2.0

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Self-Knowledge – Some Sceptical Issues

Abstract: The article examines some sceptical issues in the conditions of justification of self-knowledge, which accrue from the partial overlap between the subject and the object of cognition. After a review of types of beliefs, the thesis of privileged access to mental states is analysed with regard to the unity of the subject and the question of the identification of the subject in the beliefs based on external evidence.
Key words: self-knowledge, privileged access, self-consciousness, self-identification

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Minima moralia

God is dead/Nietzsche is dead

The idea of this text is to trace and highlight the “death of God” as an essential part of Nietzsche’s philosophical project - just as this “event” is problematized in Nietzsche’s text. Unlike other research on the subject, the emphasis here is on the “versions” of this “long farewell to God” in Nietzsche, ie. an attempt was made to “read Nietzsche according to Nietzsche”. Therefore, clichés such as “Nietzsche is the last metaphysician” or “Nietzsche overcame metaphysics” are not commented on here. The interest is focused on the “shadows of God”, on the causes and consequences of this “phenomenon”. So this text is a kind of answer to the question of whether Nietzsche’s critique of metaphysics is a goal or a result of the overall strategy of the German philosopher. The proposed topic is explored in the Nietzsche style.
Keywords: Nietzsche, God is dead, metaphysics, Nietzsche’s style.

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Globalization, transformation and sustainable development of modern society – advantages and disadvantages

There are different points of view on the pros and cons of globalization, its impact on society, the economies and policies of individual countries around the world, multiculturalism and innovations. The idea of this process is to transform the status quo, to try to achieve stability and tolerance to the peculiarities of individual nations, to establish partnerships by finding solutions to issues of geopolitical and strategic nature. The globalization is a complex that is in process of formation. Gradually, centers for its regulation were created according to the strength of influence of the subjects of international relations and their access to management of geopolitical processes. The integration and socialization are other determining factors for the development of countries around the world. The globalization leads to change in the way of communication of people and shortens the distance between them. The traditional communication channels are replaced by new ones.
There is an overexploitation of natural resources and a blurring of the responsibility for their protection. The paper draws attention to the impact of biomimicry on globalization, the division of rich and poor countries, risk management in the appearance of confrontations and achievement of balance between the actors of the international arena.
Keywords: globalization, stability, biomimicry, risk management

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Communist Capitalism

Bulgarian translation of the short text by Giorgio Agamben, published on 15.12.2020 under the title "Capitalismo comuista" in his column on the website of Quodlibet publishing house

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Alternative Logic of Hugh MacColl

Imposed by time predicate logic is extension of propositional logic and this extension form first order logic or the so called “classical” logic. But in the time there is another system with similar properties. The logic of Hugh MacColl suggest one more successful connection between tradition and formal logic because it adds thesis of Aristotle and Boethius. Furthermore MacColl system include some modal and relevant elements, along with this it is five valued.
Key words: MacColl, modal, connexive, relevant, predicate logic, five valued

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